The rapid urbanization in China has been associated with a growing hunger for energy consumption and steadily-increasing COdos emissions. In this paper, an integrated system dynamics model composed of four sub-models is developed to simulate the urbanization and energy consumption in China from 1998 to 2050. Three scenarios are provided: accelerated economic development, emission reduction constraint, and low-carbon oriented. The result reveals that rapid economic growth and sufficient energy supply will foster China’s urbanization in all three scenarios. Under the low carbon transition scenario, China’s urbanization rate is expected to reach % in 2050, both reducing carbon emissions and promoting eco-friendly development. All three scenarios witness a dramatic growth of residential energy consumption and a steady increase of industrial energy consumption. China still has a long way to achieve the low-carbon transition goal. China should promote renewable resources and energy, pursue a low-carbon lifestyle, and reduce energy intensity over the next few decades.
There is a long and rich history of research exploring the association between energy demand and urbanization 1,2,3 . Energy consumption, and its socioeconomic and environmental impacts, have imposed a critical influence on urban sustainability 1 . At the same time, the effects of urbanization on energy consumption vary across scales and over countries 4,5,6 . China’s dramatic urbanization and the associated energy demand as well as the pressure of CO2 emitted by such energy consumption is a major global scientific issue since this century 7,8,9 . Previous research in China has often focused on a specific field or aspect, such as urbanization theory 10 , urbanization procedure 11 , energy policy 12 , energy growth 13 , CO2 emission 14 , climate change 15 , and public health 16 .
System personality modeling from urbanization below opportunity restrictions inside the Asia
Even when urban expansion create accelerate time consumption 17,18,19 , the latest automotive fuel explore can associate adversely with the urbanization level due to economies off measure 20,21,22 . Such as, a whole lot more urbanized elements during the Canada consumed down each capita energy 23 . Simultaneously, overall time usage of rural households is actually larger than that of urban homes, once the over 85% away from outlying households fool around with ineffective solid-fuel twenty-four . According to Consumer Investigation Program, 275 metropolises around the globe use hydropower, 189 urban centers play with wind stamina, and 184 locations use solar photovoltaic strength. No less than a hundred urban centers have fun with renewable energy to reach 70% off strength, including Seattle, Oslo, Vancouver, and you will Nairobi. In the us, 58 towns and cities, along with Atlanta and San diego, enjoys plans to transition so you can one hundred% neat and renewable power. To the current technology and effort shops, it is expected to achieve 100% renewable energy also provide in the world and go no carbon pollutants of the 2025. The worldwide fuel generation framework in the 2050 is anticipated given that lower than: solar solar pv (69%), cinch strength (18%), hydropower (8%), and you can biomass (2%), with time storage electric batteries covering 29% out-of fuel consult. It’s noted that every of the planet’s biggest dams and you can power plant life are located in China, when you are Yunnan Province and you may Guizhou Province contribute 29% from China’s hydropower. The latest Jinsha River alone possess a good nine-peak dam. This new stamina from these hydropower is truly carried so you can Guangdong and you may Hong-kong from large-voltage grid. Because of the abundant hydropower info available for air conditioning, Guizhou State has already feel China’s essential study center feet. During the 2018, Apple Company oriented this new iCloud studies cardio in the Guizhou. Every highest They team out-of China has actually create research stores in the Guizhou, together with Alibaba, Huawei, and China Mobile.
Urbanization is a non-linear open complex system, with multiple subsystems dynamically interacting with each other 25,26,27 . Dramatic urbanization under energy constraints is challenging for China, which has topped all the countries in population, energy consumption (since 2010), and CO2 emissions (since 2008) 27 . To systematically examine the causality mechanism between energy consumption and urbanization, the SD (system dynamics) model has been widely used in the domains such as energy consumption 28 , energy policy 29,30 , energy efficiency 31 , carbon emission 32,33 , and energy industry 34,35 . The SD model, Monte Carlo simulation, and Hornberger-Spear-Young (HSY) algorithm were employed to analyze the urbanization patterns with the limit of energy and environmental resources 36 . In addition, the baseline scenario was simulated from 2005 to 2020 using the SD model of urbanization and the energy consumption complex system 28 . The SD model was also developed using the STELLA platform to model the energy consumption and dating for seniors CO2 emission trends 33 . To dynamically predict future urban development trends under various scenarios has very important scientific values for the policy formulation.